PJB1979 has written 10 posts for Hamilton Institute

Galaxies Are Storms

Galaxies, like hurricanes, are storms. (Recognizable by their diffuse spiral composition,) But, instead of being comprized by watervapor (and water drops) they are comprized of stars. The number of waterdrops comprizing a huricane is somewhat similar to the number of stars comprizing a galaxy. As with the eye of a storm, the center of a [...]

imperative of the use of negative probabilities for quantum computing

There is critical imperative of the use of negative probabilities for logic and computing. I read somewhere that Dirac was an advocate of the use of negative probabilities, that was something like  four years ago. I’ve been thinking about it and thinking about it, and negative probabilities now appear to me as opposites of normal [...]


TIME (subscript are in brackets: [...]) We start with the efficiency of  a Carnot-machine, or rather, simply efficiency e = 1 – Q[L]/Q[H] which is based on the law of conservation of energy Q[H] – Q[L] = W of which the modern equivalent is E – E[S] = KE = pc* so that the efficiency [...]

Rewriting General Gravitation

Rewriting General Gravitation General gravitation was first formulated by Newton as F = GM1M2/r2 It can be rewritten, using area A = 4πr2 and force F = Ma, as a = 4πGdM/dA It can be rewritten in turn, using acceleration a = αr and density ρ = dM/dV and volume V = 8πr3, as 8πGρ [...]

The Equivalent of Power

The Equivalent of Power A known solution for power is P = Fv Where F = ma, so that P = mav The same, using impulse p = mv, is P = pa Again the same, using p = [h-bar]k and ak = [alpha], the latter shown using the sum-rule (d/dt)(dl/dt)(d[theta]/dl) = (d/dt)(d[theta]/dt), is P [...]

Mass change caused by the Doppler shift for light.

This short article explains how relativistic transformations can be replaced by the Doppler effect when it affects mass. The simplest formulation of relativistic mass and the Einstein invariance is m0 = m sqrt(1 – v2/c2) , where m0 is the rest-mass. The remainder of the Doppler effect for light affecting mass is mS = m0 [...]

Isotropic Relativistic Transformations

This will demonstrate how relativistic transformations can be made isoptropic. According to the theory of special relativity, the transformation for length and time coordinates and mass and energy between two inertial systems A and B, representing length and time coordinates and mass and energy as A when those are at rest with system A is [...]

The proof that it is possible to colour any land map using only 4 colours

This article will demonstrate that any random configuration of lines on a two dimensional surface, whether curved or not, can be coloured using 4 colours, without the occurrence of two sections of the surface with the same colour touching. An actual configuration of countries can easily be displayed on a sphere shell, which is the [...]

The Acceleration of Light

In this paper I will show that light undergoes a centripetal acceleration. The speed of light is constant in three dimensions, so the acceleration will take place in the fourth dimension. This implies that everything in the universe follows this curvature of space-time, and that therefore everything in the universe rotates in the same fashion [...]

Kinetic Energy and Efficiency

Deriving the classical expression for kinetic energy from the formula for the efficiency of a carnotmachine, using the formula for relativisticmass. This article will demonstrate how the law of conservation of energy from the special theory of relativity corresponds to the formula for the efficiency of a carnotmachine, using substitutions of terms for efficiency, e, [...]